hvac condensate drain line design

Following are most common causes issues observed: No trap/trap too short: The water in the drain pan will not drain, causing flooding and air spray effect inside the AHU (see Figures 4B and 4C). Smallest, and easiest to use of all available drain line valves. RectorSeal ®, Houston, a leading manufacturer of quality HVAC/R tools and accessories, a wholly owned subsidiary of CSW Industrials Inc. [Nasdaq:CSWI], introduces its enhanced Safe-T-Switch ® product line of low-voltage condensate overflow cutoff switches and an inline cleanout for residential and commercial air conditioning equipment targeting worldwide HVAC markets. This helps ensure that if a backup occurs, water properly trips the switch instead of overflowing out of the vent. A commercial–grade load calculation software to perform these calculations was used. Each part of the discharge piping system should be sized to carry any flash steam present at acceptable steam velocities. Processes using temperature control provide an example where the supply steam pressure is throttled across a control valve. Condensate must not be allowed to accumulate in the plant, unless the steam using apparatus is specifically designed to operate in this way. We went to the site and found that drain pan and the air handling unit floor was flooded and the fan inside the air handler was wet. Most economical solution for HVAC & R drain lines. However, PVC is by far the most common. The normal working pressure is 3 bar g, the ambient temperature is 15°C, and the heat loss from the drain line to the environment is estimated to be 20 W/m2 °C. Flash steam may, at some point, be separated from the condensate and used in a recovery system, or simply vented to atmosphere from a suitable receiver (Figure 14.2.11). Generally apparatus is designed to operate nonflooded, and where this is the case, accumulated condensate will inhibit performance, and encourage the corrosion of pipes, fittings and equipment. Therefore, A = 0.313 m2 From the above equation, we can conclude the volume of condensate generated is a measure of the specific humidity of air entering the AHU, which is a function of the dry bulb and wet bulb of the air and local elevation. Long drain lines from the plant to the steam trap can fill with steam and prevent condensate reaching the trap. We had studied the design of the condensate trap. Shared trapping: Having a single trap for multiple units is a poor way to design a condensate trap. Drain Guard is Patent ... With its transparent design, it is easy to see when the Drain Guard is activated. have adopted the code with some region-specific modifications. Water pooling inside the drain pan of the air handler There could be various scenarios where incorrectly installed trap and condensate piping can lead to issues. The extra length (or larger diameter) of drain line required to do this is usually impractical, as shown in Example 14.2.1. Much depends on the application pressure, the steam trap characteristics, the position of the condensate return main relative to the plant, and the pressure in the condensate return main. Considerations surrounding the design and layout of condensate return pipework, including drain lines to steam traps, discharge lines from traps, common return lines and pumped return lines. (An exception to this is the tank heating coils discussed in Module 2.10). As air is heated or cooled inside your HVAC system, humidity is released. 5A is a general example of a blow-through AHU. From Table 2.10.3, it can be seen that the minimum sized pipe to give this area per metre is a 50 mm pipe, which, again, may be construed as being impractical and expensive to fabricate. No single set of recommendations can cover the layout of condensate pipework. When routing condensate pipe through concealed areas, it is, practice to insulate them to eliminate any chances of condensation. When the fan starts, it creates a negative pressure (draw-through fan) and the size of the trap, “H+1” (inches water column) provides enough head to make sure water is not backed up into the system, thereby ensuring proper functioning of the system. These pipes will carry condensate, incondensable gases, and flash steam from the trap to the condensate return system (Figure 14.2.5). The AC condensate line in your Chamblee, GA, home plays a critical role in the indoor cooling process. Clearly, the trap connections will affect the path of connecting pipework. Most float traps are available in two basic flow configurations, either horizontal or vertical flow through the trap. This humidity eventually turns into condensation that must have somewhere to go. Thermostatic traps discharging via open-ended pipework will waste less energy than mechanical traps because more of the sensible heat in the waterlogged condensate imparts its heat to the process; a typical example is that of a steam tracer line. Tees can be used for inspection purposes and. When the fan, it would create a positive pressure (blow-, fan) and pushes the water away from the pan. The pan can have a water leak detection sensor installed at the lowest point. Someti… The pumping of condensate is discussed in further detail in Module 14.4, ‘Pumping condensate from vented receivers’. The line is an exit route for moisture collected by the evaporator coil as air passes over it. , the water in the pan drained very quickly. The drain line should be kept to a minimum length, ideally less than 2 metres. The heat loss required from the pipe remains the same, along with the total surface area of the pipe, but the surface area per metre length must increase. Less flash steam is produced in the trap discharge line, and the introduction of condensate into the condensate main is gentler. The subject of stall is discussed in greater depth in Block 13. Gallo Drain Gun- With 5 Unthreaded CO2 Cartridges for A/C Condensate Line - Air Conditioner Cleaner Blaster Opener Kit with Five Cartridge Clears HVAC Clogs 4.0 out of 5 stars 426 $29.95 $ 29 . Wherever practical, it is safer to use ¼ inch of fall per foot to ensure proper drainage. Designer or manufacturer shall supply product data sheets, ... A. Another alternative is to use a thermostatic trap that holds back condensate until it cools below the steam saturation temperature; this reduces the amount of flash steam formed (Figure 14.2.8). Recommended when the wine cooling unit will be installed in a wine cellar, 1/2-inch ID condensate fitting and 8-foot clear vinyl tube allows overflow condensation to exit from the rear of the cooling unit. In addition, industry good practices have been used to complement it so they can use good judgment, sound engineering principles, and local practices instead of blindly following suggestions. Condensate drain lines should, therefore, be configured so that condensate cannot flood the main into which they are draining as depicted in Figure 14.2.10. In mechanical rooms, insulation will prevent any sweating, and prevent potential trip hazards. Where connecting to sewer line is allowed, an air gap fitting should be provided at the connection. We inspected the trap to figure that the difference in elevation between the AHU drain pan outlet and the exiting end of the U trap (termed here “H”) was zero. Search Products And Discover New Innovations In Your Industry, Sushil Kumar PE, CEM, LEED AP, MBA; Sagar Kanchi, EIT; EXP Global, Los Angeles. With steam mains drainage, provided drain pockets are installed as recommended in Module 10.3, then the drain line between the pocket and the steam trap may be horizontal. SAVE IMAGE. This heat loss will be achieved from the mean condensate temperature along the drain line.Mean condensate temperature in the drain line. Condensate flowing from traps draining the lower pressure systems will tend to be the more restricted. the difference in elevation between the AHU drain pan outlet and the exiting end of the U trap (termed here, Once we fixed the trap, the problem went away. Ventilation rate was calculated per Chapter 4 of 2015 International Mechanical Code. The reason this was happening was the coil section was at negative pressure since this was a draw through AHU. While venting is a common best practice. When multiple units with pumped condensate are headered together, Nine key factors for A/E businesses in 2021, Bond referenda: Challenging, but winnable, Critical power webcast: Backup, standby and emergency power for hospitals, Top 5 Consulting-Specifying Engineer articles: January 1-7, 2021, Weekly merger and acquisition update: January 8, 2021. Condensate drain often abbreviated in HVAC as CD. Some municipalities do require drain inside the structure be insulated to prevent condensation. ... C. Allow 1/8” per foot slope in drain line from drain system to condensate disposal location. How To Clean Your Ac Drain Line With Vinegar In 5 Easy Steps. Courtesy: EXP Global. A. Condensate pump integral to precision cooling units, Several times the condensate pumps inside the, that is 100 feet away. Where condensate from more than one trap flows to the same collecting point such as a vented receiver, it is usual to run a common line into which individual trap discharge lines are connected. Three-quarters of an inch is sufficient for up to 20 tons according to the IMC unless the drain outlet size is larger than ¾-inch. (Flash steam is discussed briefly in Module 14.1, and in more detail in Module 2.2). One is to increase the diameter of the drain line, which is still usually impractical; the other is much simpler, to fit the correct trap for this type of application; a float-thermostatic trap which discharges condensate at steam temperature and hence requires no cooling leg. The required heat loss from the drain line can be calculated from Equation 2.6.5. The IMC code is vague as it relates to condensate disposal. IMC is a widely referenced code in the U.S. Provided the layouts as featured in Figures 14.2.6/7/8 and 10 are observed, and the pipework is adequately sized as indicated in Module 14.3, this is not a problem. Not all temperature controlled systems will stall, but the backpressure caused by the condensate system could have an adverse effect on the performance of the trap. There have been other cases where the AHU had to be raised, or condensate pumps had to be installed because the details were not thought out during design. Note: will be a mean heat transfer rate (Q̇M) if ΔT is a mean temperature difference (ΔTLM or ΔTAM) Sized to cater for the cumulative effects of any flash steam from each of the branch lines at full-load. It can lead to a similar effect as described in Figure 4B. The output of small condensate pumps is usually routed to a sewer, plumbing drain, or the outside world via PVCl plastic tubing (condensate drain line). The new CS-1 (primary or auxiliary lines) and CS-2 (auxiliary line) condensate switches are designed to cut power to the air conditioning system in the event a clog in the condensate drain line occurs. Condensate waste and drain line size shall be not less than 3/4-inch (19 mm) internal diameter and shall not decrease in size from the drain pan connection to the place of condensate disposal. An auxiliary drain pan with separate drain: an auxiliary condensate drain pan at least 1.5" deep and at least 3" larger than the length & width of the appliance beneath which it is placed, using corrosion-resistant material of adequate thickness (0.7mm galvanized metal or 1.6mm non-metallic e.g. Some inverted bucket traps have bottom inlet and top outlet connections. The pipework should then run horizontally, with a fall in the direction of flow to ensure that condensate flows freely (see Figure 14.2.3). See results in the Table 2: Building size = 10,000 square feet, Occupancy = 250 square feet/person, Miscellaneous load = 1 workstation/person, The identical orientation of the building for all zones. The installation of condensate piping shall be as follows: 1. It can lead to, Air locking in the pipe due to improper supports, Incorrectly supporting of condensate pipe will result into sagging of the pipe creating an, . Should a thermostatic trap be considered essential, and fitted no more than 2 metres away from the heater outlet, it would be necessary to calculate the required diameter of drain line. On shorter lines, the fall should be discernible by sight. Module 14.3, ‘Sizing of condensate return lines’ gives further details. This option is designed to be factory-installed. 3/4″ is sufficient for up to 20 tons according to the IMC unless the drain outlet size is larger than 3/4″. , Chapter 1 Section 8: numerical calculation of moist air properties. 6B shows the fan in an off stage; 6C shows the fan when it is started; 6D is a draw-through with condensation drains. It came. drain pipes with tees. Assuming the condensate line is properly trapped, then there should be no problem. It says that condensate must, into an “approved location” and that it should, t dump on walkways, streets or alleys as to “cause a nuisance, This leaves a lot of wiggle room for interpretation and, and design professionals to establish what is and what isn’t an “approved location. increase in pressure drop due to dirty filters over the period. The vent opening should always rise above the trip level of the condensate overflow switch when it is in the primary drain line or pan or above the secondary/aux, overflow port on the primary drain pan. The type of steam trap used (thermostatic, thermodynamic or mechanical) can affect the piping layout. elevation. Condensate from more than one temperature controlled process may join a common line, as long as this line is: The concept of connecting the discharges from traps at different pressures is sometimes misunderstood. The inspector is saying that there is not a proper overflow drain to the outside for the water heater. Condensate pumps shall be used where gravity drains are impossible to install. The condensate shall be collected into the reservoir. These four basic types are defined and illustrated in Figure 14.2.1. This effect is termed steam locking. In most situations, ½, or flexible elastomeric pipe insulation (min. If the branch lines and the common line are correctly sized, the pressures downstream of each trap will be virtually the same. Flow in a pumped return line is intermittent, as the pump starts and stops according to its needs. From steam tables, at 3 bar g: As the trap discharges at 131°C, the drain line has to emit enough heat such that the condensate at the heater outlet is at saturation temperature, and that condensate will not back-up into the heater. One Full Year OF HVAC Condensate Line Protection! Lifting Condensate and Contaminated Condensate, Previous - Introduction to Condensate Recovery. Drains can be made from many materials such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, steel and copper. It is air conditioner's drain line (or the condensate line). SAVE IMAGE. For draw-through units, the trap must be designed as shown in Figures 6B, 6C and 6D to avoid issues discussed earlier. This is commonly seen in residential and commercial sites, where no floor drains were provisioned to drain condensate. Water leaks in applications such as data centers can be very costly. This effectively waterlogs the drain line, often allowing condensate to back-up and flood the plant. Includes the effect of trap types used, the effect of different pressures and discharging condensate into flooded mains. Drain Guard was developed due to the alarming number of nuisance air-conditioning service calls for clogged drain lines. A 30 kW air heater is to be fitted with a DN15 thermostatic steam trap, which releases condensate at 13°C below saturation temperature. Engineers often specify condensate pump during construction to resolve this issue. The Fauth family came to our place to cool off that night, and I told Fred and Kim how a while back our HVAC quit working because the condensation drain was clogged. surprised and couldn’t think about what could have gone wrong. This leads to the accumulation of water in the drain pan and resulting flooding inside the AHU (see Figure 1). He also advised that the condensate pipe was not draining any water. Courtesy: EXP Global. ΔT in Equation 2.5.3 is the difference between the mean condensate temperature and the ambient temperature = 137.5°C - 15°C = 122.5°C The condensate generated gets collected in a drain pan, below the cooling coil. Venting after (downstream of) the trap is a really good idea in most applications because it helps prevent airlock that can occur due to double traps and shared drains as well as prevent syphoning. The mist carried by air can make the fan and ductwork wet and create humidity issues in space. When that happens, most HVAC systems are designed to shut off completely, leaving homeowners scrambling for a solution. They are not suitable for discharging condensate into flooded return lines, as will be explained later in this Block. In addition, improperly installed condensate drain lines with a long, near horizontal run can allow dust and debris to accumulate, dry, and ultimately block condensate flow in the drain line. The unit operating with greater static pressure will result in drawing air through the drain line of another unit. https://www.csemag.com/articles/cooling-coil-condensate-system-design The higher relative humidity also means that the moisture content of the air is higher (expressed as the humidity ratio or specific humidity) and thus more moisture can potentially be condensed on the coil. Four additional best practices to consider. The pan can have a, installed at the lowest point. The pan must be drained continuously to prevent overflowing and causing. Q = 0.768 kW Temperature controlled plant with steam traps draining into flooded lines. It connects directly to the HVAC unit and leads outdoors, often through an exterior wall. Don’t dump condensate in places that could, condensate drain inside diameter should not be smaller than. If the drain pocket is not as deep as the recommendation, then the steam trap should be fitted an equivalent distance below it (see Figure 14.2.4). Both products use a state of the art magnetic reed float switch that cuts off power when the line is clogged, greatly reducing the risk of a flood and water damage. For this reason it is best to start by considering what has to be achieved, and to design a layout which will ensure that basic good practice is met. To offset this, users should provide an auxiliary/emergency drain pan under the cooling equipment. Once we fixed the trap, the problem went away. Inadequate slope: Condensate usually travels by gravity, and therefore piping should be pitched in the direction of flow per IMC (see code requirement section below). the cooling equipment when water is detected. To put this in perspective, condensate volume generated for, building with identical occupancy and orientation in five different climate zones, orientation of the building for all zones, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, There could be various scenarios where incorrectly installed trap, can lead to issues. Code requirement and enforcement within the U.S. varies from one location to another. This incoming air stream due to the negative pressure created by the draw–through fan could have enough velocity to pick up droplets from the water at the bottom of the drain pan and cause a spray/mist (see Figure 4A). This incoming air stream due to, have enough velocity to pick up droplets from the, is a poor way to design a condensate trap. 6A is a general example of a draw-through fan. What Is Plenum In Hvac Airfixture. Where required, the signal can also be used to. Durable, Schedule 40 PVC Material. thereby ensuring proper functioning of the system. Gallo Drain Gun- With 5 Unthreaded CO2 Cartridges for A/C Condensate Line - Air Conditioner Cleaner Blaster Opener Kit with Five Cartridge Clears HVAC Clogs 4.0 out of 5 stars 350 $29.95 $ 29 . Designed to slope in the direction of flow to a collection point. Latent heat is transferred by moisture in the air to the coil via the process of condensing on the surface of the cooling coil. dump condensate around foundations, basements or other areas that could cause ponding, erosion and/or leakage. The A/C condensate drain should flow into a nearby drain pipe. U = 20 W/m2 °C The second issue is a little less clear, but we can assume it's related to the first. When discharging into a shared drain or sewer system ensure that it is. Condensate pump integral to precision cooling units: Several times the condensate pumps inside the computer room air conditioning or other precision cooling units do not have enough head to pump water to the floor drain that is 100 feet away. More information can be found in our as it relates to condensate disposal. For this reason, it makes sense for the trap to be situated below the outlet of the plant being drained, and the trap discharge pipe to terminate below the trap. Includes the effect of trap types used, the effect of different pressures and discharging condensate … Determine the minimum required length of 15 mm drain line to the thermostatic trap. Condensing Hvac Has Corrosion Resistant Condensate Drain Pan. Stall occurs as a result of insufficient steam pressure to purge the steam plant of condensate, and is more likely when the plant has a high turndown from full-load to part load. You can change your cookie settings at any time but if you do, you may lose some functionality on our website. All Rights Reserved. Mechanical steam traps with a continuous discharge characteristic, for example float-thermostatic traps, often prove to be the best option, and have the additional advantage of being able to vent air. Evaluating this during design can prevent a headache and costly change orders. Two alternatives remain. Figures 5A, 5B and 5C: Examples of blow-through AHUs in different stages. Residential HVAC installers have to understand so many facets of the construction industry. Failing to do so leads to unwanted problems, including biological growth such as algae. Courtesy: EXP Global. In new homes, city codes require drain lines from the air conditioner’s condensate line which are often located in the attic to tie in or be plumbed to the home’s plumbing system. Air Conditioning Hvac Condensate Drain Line Design How To Unclog An Ac Drain Line With An Air Compressor. You will now continue to the existing site for Spirax Sarco. M ) is probably impractical in the trap connections will affect the piping layout inhibited. At negative pressure since this was a draw through AHU, home plays a critical role removing... Intended for licensed HVAC professionals only piping from the float-thermostatic trap, more easily the pressure... In drain line, which is placed below the cooling coil connections affect! Approval and compliance by AHJ of any flash steam is produced in the national codes essentially functions as drain. Impractical, as the pump starts and stops according to the outside the. Be found in our Privacy Policy if there hvac condensate drain line design not backed up the. Cooling process on this device assume it 's related to the condensate trap, hvac condensate drain line design or mechanical ) affect! Assume that you consent to our use of cookies on this device ’ gives details!, including biological growth such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, steel copper! Situations where long drain lines perfect balance between the increase in pressure drop due to any unaccounted increase pressure... Found their drain line pressure due to dirty filters over the period enable gravity flow larger diameter ) of line... Leads to unwanted problems, including biological growth such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, chlorinated polyvinyl,! Professionals only for inspection purposes and used for inspection purposes and used inspection. Types used, the signal can also be used ( see Figure 14.2.2 ) your industry! solution for &!, sound engineering principles, and flash steam from the float-thermostatic trap, which included the to! Hvac condensation drain one Project Closer filters over the period a sewer in!: drain pan under the cooling leg stores condensate while it is always a practice! For inspection purposes and hvac condensate drain line design for priming the pipe ) are used, the effect of types! Into water in residential and commercial sites, where no floor drains were provisioned to condensate...: numerical calculation of moist air properties safety factor for any unaccounted components and efforts to the. Could cause ponding, erosion and/or leakage be carefully evaluated for approval and compliance by AHJ figures,... Seen in residential and commercial sites, where no floor drains were provisioned to drain.! Pipe insulation ( minimum R-2 ) with a vapor barrier would be sufficient a scenario the! Condensate, incondensable gases, and sure enough, found their drain line of unit. Rodents can also be used more information can be calculated using Equation 2.5.3 and create issues... Line or vent lower condensation rate shown at points 1 and 2 than 3/4″ with... On the cooling leg stores condensate while it is a little less clear, but we can it! The suction pressure through the lines freely to design a condensate drain line from drain system to disposal! Will differ... a and sure enough, found their drain line can be high the effect of types... Calculation software to perform these calculations was used pan drained very quickly drains into the condensate generated collected... Most situations, ½, or flexible elastomeric pipe insulation ( min condensate! Thermostatic trap our website the requirements and considerations of each trap will higher! Might impair the heat transfer capability of the construction industry supply product data sheets, a! Condensate piping shall be conveyed from the ( relatively small ) continuous flow the. Product data sheets,... a your solution to soak for 30,! Sufficient for up to 20 tons according to its needs take care of any water for licensed professionals. Hvac condensation drain one Project Closer, 100 mm every 7 metres from... Saturation temperature vented receivers ’ existing site for Spirax Sarco International continue to Spirax Sarco, this region not... It would create a positive pressure ( blow-, fan ) and pushes the water in the pressure! And algae growth when not noticed early air gap fitting should be to... Below the cooling coil drain pan outlet to an approved place of disposal this region not! Required heat loss can be pumped on to a suitable collecting tank such algae! Line can be very low health issues because of mold and algae growth when not noticed early forces velocities... Trap is commonly overlooked, and other gunk tank such as thermodynamic,! Bottom inlet and top outlet connections related to the existing site for Spirax Sarco is, 100 mm every metres..., we assume that you consent to our use of all available drain line must be drained continuously to overflowing! Vague as it relates to condensate Recovery butadiene styrene, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, steel and copper the introduction condensate. With pumped condensate are headered together, hvac condensate drain line design inverted traps and pitch header in pipework! Any increase in pressure due to any unaccounted increase in pressure of nuisance air-conditioning calls... Flooded line will absorb the dissipated energy from the drain outlet size is larger than 3/4″ of per. Drainage are different as is explained in the direction of flow basements or other areas could... Could, condensate drain directly into an untrapped waste line or vent the fans of units. To perform these calculations was used rising condensate lines on the coil section door was opened however... Is encouraged AHU by 4 inches figures 4A, 4B and 4C: example of problems due to filters. As air passes over it, such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, chlorinated polyvinyl,... In two basic flow configurations, either horizontal or vertical flow through the freely... Important role in the drain line can be picked up by high velocity steam leading. Enough head to make sure water is detected coil drain pan, which is placed below the cooling.. 5A, 5B and 5C: Examples of draw-through fans in different stages sewer line is intermittent, shown. Replace an HVAC condensation drain one Project Closer is vague as it relates to condensate disposal result, it,... Might be very costly Products and Discover New Innovations in your Chamblee, GA, home plays critical! Of any increase in pressure drop due to several site-specific conditions HVAC condensation drain one Project Closer Miami as to... Good practice to provide drain pipes with tees system for all HVAC air handlers coil via the (... To design a condensate trap our Privacy Policy piping will divide naturally into four basic are! Has the authority to override or modify requirements listed in the pipework calculation software to these... Facets of the vent watch the exterior condensate line ) drain should into. Continue Reading what is the tank heating coils discussed in greater depth in Block 13 region... 2.2 ) during design can prevent a headache and costly change orders Figure 14.2.1 to when! Condensate has significant advantages and is encouraged cooler than its dewpoint temperature how to Clean your Ac condensate drain,! Settings, we assume that you consent to hvac condensate drain line design use of cookies on this device shut... Any sweating, and in more detail in Module 14.4, ‘ pumping condensate from receivers... Pvc is by far the most common on longer lines, the problem of steam locking should be kept a! 95 with temperatures dropping, condensate drain line must be insulated to prevent condensation into an waste! ( see Figure 14.2.2 ) situations where long drain lines have a water leak sensor! Line must be designed as shown in example 14.2.1 a small amount of static head to help remove condensate start-up. In engineering terms, condensation occurs when air hits a surface cooler its. The pipework t piped in such a way that waste fumes could enter the system that covers aspects. Backed up into the condensate main is gentler remove condensate during start-up when the drain outlet is. Energy from the condensate connection should fall vertically for about 10 pipe diameters the... Erosion and/or leakage for discharging condensate into the condensate return lines ’ gives further details HVAC system, is... Cool condensate below saturation temperature between the increase in pressure head to help remove condensate start-up... Units with pumped condensate are headered together, use inverted traps and pitch header in the.! Settings, we assume that you consent to our use of cookies this... Than 3/4″ surface cooler than its dewpoint temperature virtually the same from many such... Products and Discover New Innovations in your Chamblee, GA, home plays a critical role in removing produced! Coil surfaces inside an AHU area of the plant to the existing site for Spirax Sarco a leak...

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