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4. Purpose of the Research. The diversity of this research provides considerable generalizabiity to the findings. How students interact with each another is a neglected aspect of instruction. Cooperators spent considerably more time on task than did competitors (effect size = 0.76) or students working individualistically (effect size = 1.17). The third issue is to understand the five basic elements that make cooperation work. Stronger effects are found for peer support than for superior (teacher) support. Teachers (a) formulate both academic and social skills objectives, (b) decide on the size of groups, (c) choose a method for assigning students to groups, (d) decide which roles to assign group members, (e) arrange the room, and (f) arrange the materials students need to complete the assignment. b. Group members realize, therefore, that each person’s efforts benefit not only him- or herself, but all other group members as well. In cooperative situations, students’ actions substitute for each other, students are inducible, and a positive cathexis is created toward other’s actions. c.  Predict what is going to be presented next; hypothesize. A typical class session may begin with a base group meeting, which is followed by a short lecture in which informal cooperative learning is used. In human societies the individuals who are most likely to survive are those who are best enabled to do so by their group. Group celebrations add reward interdependence to the pairs. Discussing the processes the group used to function, furthermore, emphasizes the continuous improvement of promotive interaction and the patterns of interaction need to maximize student learning and retention. Within cooperative situations, individuals seek outcomes that are beneficial to themselves and beneficial to all other group members. It was not an advantageous individual here and there who did so, but the group. In the late 1940s, one of Lewin’s graduate students, Morton Deutsch, extended Lewin’s reasoning about social interdependence and formulated a theory of cooperation and competition (Deutsch, 1949, 1962). There are important cognitive activities and interpersonal dynamics that can only occur when students promote each other’s learning. The first issue is understanding the nature of social interdependence. The task requires students to summarize what they have learned from the lecture and integrate it into existing conceptual frameworks. Teachers have to teach teamwork skills just as purposefully and precisely as teachers do academic skills. Closure Focused Discussion:  Teachers give students an ending discussion task lasting four to five minutes. ), a short documentary video that shows important features of good collaboration, three or more challenging problems that students won’t be able to solve alone, and a few short videos depicting students like yours collaborating together. Thus, the more cooperative learning experiences students are involved in, the more mature their cognitive and moral decision making and the more they will tend to take other people’s perspectives in account when making decisions. Students should be grouped for instruction to maximize opportunities to learn, and the type of grouping can produce different results based on the circumstances. Placing people in the same room, seating them together, telling them they are a group, does not mean they will cooperate effectively. Silent discussion about the workshop’s two central questions: You can opt-out at any time. Cooperative learning is inherently more complex than competitive or individualistic learning because students have to engage simultaneously in taskwork and teamwork. Also, Kolawole posited that cooperative learning strategy was more effective than competitive learning strategy in teaching of Mathematics at secondary school level. Theorizing on social interdependence began in the early 1900s, when one of the founders of the Gestalt School of Psychology, Kurt Koffka, proposed that groups were dynamic wholes in which the interdependence among members could vary. Teachers (a) bring closure to the lesson, (b) assess and evaluate the quality and quantity of student achievement, (c) ensure students carefully discuss how effectively they worked together (i.e., process the effectiveness of their learning groups), (d) have students make a plan for improvement, and (e) have students celebrate the hard work of group members. Montagu and Horney recognized that the essence of psychological health is the ability to develop and maintain cooperative relationships. Definition of interactiveness in the Definitions.net dictionary. However, the term cooperative learning seems to date back to the 1970s when a great deal of research and practica1 work began on discovering how best to harness peer power for the benetit of learning. Cooperative learning is an activity which helps students to work in groups. After each segment, students are asked to turn to the person next to them and work cooperatively in answering a question (specific enough so that students can answer it in about three minutes) that requires students to cognitively process the material just presented. Teachers may also teach the concepts and strategies required to complete the assignment. In fact, the more diversity in a team, the higher the benefits for each student. New York: Norton. Without the cooperation of its members society cannot survive, and the society of man has survived because the cooperativeness of its members made survival possible…. In the late 1800’s Triplett in the United States, Turner in England, and Mayer in Germany conducted a series of studies on the factors associated with competitive performance. In addition, teachers collect specific data on promotive interaction, the use of targeted social skills, and the engagement in the desired interaction patterns. When international agreements are made and when international efforts to achieve mutual goals (such as environmental protection) occur, these five elements must be carefully implemented and maintained. The task may also point students toward what the homework will cover or what will be presented in the next class session. The Cooperative Learning Institute is a 501(c)3 organization dedcatited to furthering the practice and study of cooperation in the classroom. Depending on whether individuals promote or obstruct each other’s goal accomplishments, there is substitutability, cathexis, and inducibility. Information and translations of interactiveness in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. In the ideal classroom, all students would learn how to work cooperatively with others, compete for fun and enjoyment, and work autonomously on their own. The more positive the relationships among students and between students and faculty, the lower the absenteeism and dropout rates and the greater the commitment to group goals, feelings of personal responsibility to the group, willingness to take on difficult tasks, motivation and persistence in working toward goal achievement, satisfaction and morale, willingness to endure pain and frustration on behalf of the group, willingness to defend the group against external criticism or attack, willingness to listen to and be influenced by colleagues, commitment to each other’s professional growth and success, and productivity (Johnson & F. Johnson, 2009). In these preinstructional decisions, the social skills objectives specify the interpersonal and small group skills students are to learn. Cooperative learning is a methodology that employs a variety of learning activities to improve students’ understanding of a subject by using a structured approach which involves a series of steps, requiring students to create, analyze and apply concepts (Kagan, 1990). In your classroom you should really only have groups of 4 students. Informal cooperative learning ensures students are actively involved in understanding what is being presented. The teacher’s role in using cooperative base groups is to (a) form heterogeneous groups of four (or three), (b) schedule a time when they will regularly meet (such as beginning and end of each class session or the beginning and end of each week), (c) create specific agendas with concrete tasks that provide a routine for base groups to follow when they meet, (d) ensure the five basic elements of effective cooperative groups are implemented, and (e) have students periodically process the effectiveness of their base groups. 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